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The Ashtabula Plan
Municipal Government ^
The Commission- Manager Form with
The text of the novel features of the Charter
and an account of the first election Nov-
ember 2, 1915
PUBLISHED BY THE
Iashtabula chamber of commerce
*"' ASHTABULA, OHIO
Copies of this pamphlet may also be obtained on request from
The National Short Ballot Organization, 381 4th Avenue, N. Y.
(Which publishes other pamphlets on the Commission-Manager Plan)
The American Proportional Representation League, Haverford, Pa-
(Which publishes other pamphlets on Proportional Representation)
The Ashtabula Plan
This pamphlet is intended to provide a careful answer to the
many questions that are being addressed to Ashtabula in regard to its
unique new plan of government.
Ashtabula, Ohio, is a thriving industrial community of about
20,000 population (18,266 in the 1910 Census). Politically its history
has been uneventful except for the incessant contests between wets
and drys on the liquor question, on which the city divides very evenly,
sometimes inclining to one side and sometimes to the other. There
was no serious allegation of graft in the old mayor-and-council gov-
ernment: the new charter was adopted mainly to realize the benefits
of the home-rule provisions of the new state constitution and to mod-
ernize and simplify the municipal machinery.
General Charter Provisions
The govefn^g body, is a body of seven members elected at large
by the Hare system of proportional representation for a term of two
years. Salary pf.membiers; $100 a year, with $50 extra for the chair-
man (called presid'eiit)'. -No* other elective officers in the city govern-
ment — a Short Ballot facilitating control by the people.
The council is instructed to "appoint a City Manager who shall
be the administrative head of the municipal government under the
direction and supervision of the Council and who shall hold office at
the pleasure of the Council." The council also appoints the City
Solicitor, City Treasurer, Health Officer, City Auditor, and Civil Ser-
vice Commission. All other appointments are in the hands of the
The charter includes the Initiative, Referendum, and Recall.
Except for the unique proportional representation feature, it will
be seen that the charter conforms to the commission-manager plan of
Dayton, Springfield, and some forty other American cities.
Ashtabula takes its position in the following sequence of pioneers
in municipal government.
1900 Galveston Commission Plan
1905 Pes Moines Commission Plan with non-partisan elections
and other improvements
(copied by over 350 cities)
1913 Dayton Commission Plan with City Manager
(copied by 40 cities up to date)
1914 Cadillac Commission-Manager Plan with Preferential
(copied by 4 cities)
1915 Ashtabula Commission-Manager Plan with Proportion-
The First Proportional Representation Election in America'
By A. R. HATTON
Professor of Political Science, Western Reserve University
Has Ashtabula shown the way to the final type of city government
on this continent ? There is more than a fair chance that she has.
Ashtabula chose a Charter Commission under the Ohio home rule
amendment early in 1914. The Commission elected was favorable to
the Commission-Manager Plan of government with a council elected at
Already, however, the objection had been advanced in Ashtabula
that a council elected at large in the usual way would probably repre-
sent only one party, and that this was not desirable if the council was
to choose the Manager, who was expected to be a permanent expert
The man who had brought this idea to Ashtabula was C. G. Hoag,
General Secretary of the American Proportional Representation
League. Mr. Hoag was invited to address the Charter Commission at
its first formal meeting. On that occasion he again proposed, as a way
out of the difficulty, the election of the council at large by proportional
representation. Several members of the Commission accepted the idea
as sound in theory. One of them, Mr. W. E. Boynton, an engineer on
the Lake Shore Railroad, who had previously been President of the
City Council, embraced the proposal with enthusiasm, thoroughly
acquainted himself with the proportional system, and became the de-
voted and efficient leader of a campaign for its adoption by Ashtabula.
The Commission finally rejected proportional representation as a
novelty likely to jeopardize the acceptance of the charter as a whole
when submitted to the voters. As submitted in November, 1914, the
charter provided for a council of seven, nominated by a 5 per cent
petition and to be elected at large in the usual way on a non-partisan
ballot. This charter was adopted.
Although Mr. Boynton is quiet, he is persistent. He at once set
about to initiate his proportional representation amendment to the
new charter. This amendment was voted on in August, 1915, before
the first election of the council.
♦From the Cleveland Plain Dealer, November 8th, with Changes
Sanctioned by the Author
Though the vote was light, proportional representation carried in
all but five of the fifteen precincts of the city. It was under this
amendment that Aish tabula elected its first council under the new
.-, f /.' '}■ : '. !Whaf is Proportional Representation?
The theory of proportional representation is that each consider-
able party or group of opinion should be represented in the council
or representative body in proportion to its voting strength. Thus if,
in an election at which seven representatives are to be chosen, the
Democrats cast four-sevenths, the Republicans two-sevenths, and the
Socialists one-seventh of the vote, those parties should be represented
in the council by four, two, and one representative respectively.
If the division of opinion is not along party lines, the divisions
should nevertheless be represented in proportion to their voting
In Ashtabula the lines of division in the recent election had little
to do with national parties except that there was a Socialist group.
There was first the question of local representation. The Harbor dis-
trict lies at some distance from the city proper. Under the old ward
plan this district had always been represented by one member of the
council. Under the usual plan of election at large it would probably
not have been represented at all. Then there is in Ashtabula the
question of nationalities. The city has a large foreign element, the
chief groups being Irish, Italians, Swedes, and Finns.
The voters are also sharply divided on the liquor issue, the city
swaying first to the dry and then to the wet side. Finally, there is the
question of adequate representation for the substantial business ele-
ment of the community. It will be interesting to note the extent to
which these various groups and interests secured representation at
the recent election.
There are several plans of proportional representation. That
adopted is the Hare plan.
There are seven members of the council to be chosen. The candi-
dates get their names on the ballot by filing a petition signed by 2 per
cent of the voters. No voter can sign a petition for more than one
candidate. The ballot has no party marks. The voter marks his
preferences for as many candidates as he pleases, the figure 1 for his
first choice, the figure 2 for his second choice, etc. Though any num-
ber of preferences may be marked, and though seven members are to
be elected, no ballot can be actually counted for more than one candi-
date. In order to be elected a candidate does not need a majority,
or even a plurality of all the votes, but only a trifle more than an
eighth of them.
To determine the number of votes necessary for election to the
council the total number of valid ballots is divided by eight, and the
whole number next higher than the quotient thus secured is taken as
the number of votes required to elect. This number is chosen because
it is the smallest whole number that can be taken seven but not eight
times from the total. In other words, it would be possible for seven
candidates to get that many votes out of a given total but eight could
not possibly do so.
In Ashtabula the total number of valid ballots cast was 2,972.
This number divided by 8 gives a quotient of 371 -}. The next whole
number larger than this quotient is 372, and this was therefore the
number of votes required for election. The number so established
is known as the "quota" or constituency.
One^j&agdidaLfe, SrcCIii re. r e f^^^'^'^d n^nvo thg n tj^ i s numbe r of first- tI
chp«!^otes, namely 392. '.The extra 20 ballots, taken fromTnS ballotsk^ '^^
ft random but equally from'Ti ie, b attots of each precinct, were trans- ) *^^,
ferred to second-choice candidates, each one in accordance withjl
instructions given by the voter's figures on the ballot. Fjic--ers?irriple,
.these 20 ballo ts were tra flsferrejl.lflLMcCaaeHjgeause on them ^ W^
McCune 's name was marked with the figure 2. a* 1 7^
Next, the candidate having fewest votes was declared defeated AAk
and out of the count, and all his ballots were distributed to other can- Pn Jj_ •
didates in the same way. This done, the candidate now lowest was i^
declared defeated and out, and his ballots transferred. And so the
count proceeded until all the ballots except an odd remainder found
their way into one or another of seven surviving piles.
An abstract explanation of the process gives an impression of
great complexity. When it came to the actual work of the count,
however, no trouble whatever arose. Although the board of election
had had no previous experience with such a system and was without
proper office equipment for handling such a ballot, the transferring
of the ballots and the tabulation of the vote was accomplished in about
three hours. At no time were the officials in serious doubt concerning
the steps to be taken.
♦ * ♦
"With one exception the seven standing highest on first-choice
votes were finally elected, the exception being Mr. Rinto, a young
Finnish lawyer. McCune, Hogan, Briggs, and Corrado, four of the
successful candidates, are members of the present city council. The
other three candidates who are members of the present council were
How well do the men chosen represent the city? McClure is man-
ager of a department in one of the large stores. Hogan is one of the
leading physicians of Ashtabula, McCune is a greenhouse man, Gud-
mundson assistant cashier of a bank in the Harbor district, Earlywine
clerk and paymaster of a large ore company, Briggs a newspaper
man, and Carrado a saloon-keeper.
The business element may be said to have three representatives.
The Irish, Swedes, and Italians each elected a member. The Socialists
elected one member, and the Harbor district is represented. On the
liquor issue, three of the successful candidates are pronounced drys,
three are classed as liberal, and one as very wet.
In general, the opinion in Ashtabula seems to be that, taking both
quality and representative character into consideration, a better
choice could hardly have been made from the list of candidates. It
is generally agreed that the new council will contain more ability than
the present one elected on the ward plan, and that it will aho be more
representative of the entire body of the voters.
I think it may be said that Ashtabula has shown other cities the
way. They have been shown how to elect a council in a manner to
provide equitable representation to all parties and interests; a plan
under which the majority will control while the minority or minor-
ities will have representation in proportion to their actual importance.
Under the Ashtabula system we may expect the quality of the
council to improve. When groups of opinion come to understand
that if they have a little more than one-eighth of the vote they cannot
be denied representation in the council, their ablest representatives will
be willing to become candidates. Men of high professional and busi-
ness ability will stand for election to the council because they will be
sure that if they really represent their element they will win. Gerry-
mandering and a large measure of political jockeying and wire-
pulling will disappear. Parties will be obliged to find a basis on
principle rather than largely on patronage, as is the case at the pres-
The manager-plan opens the way for permanent, expert service
in city administration and for the elimination of politics from that
part of our municipal governments. Proportional representation will
provide a council which may properly be allowed to choose a city
manager — a council which is truly representative, the members of
which stand for policies and the fundamental interests of the commun-
ity rather than for a more or less artificial party organization.
Ashtabula has a short ballot, the manager-plan, and a council
chosen by proportional representation. That is the latest word in
city government, and as yet no one has arisen to suggest that any-
thing further can be said.
From the Ashtabula ''Beacon," Nov. 5, 1915
Proportional representation has been demonstrated and found
better than expected.
In analyzing the results we find that all sections and factions are
represented in the new council. There are two from the first ward,
one from the second, two from the third, and two from the fourth.
Three from the Harbor and four from uptown. One from the east
side and two from the west side at the Harbor. One from the west
end, one from the south end, and two from the central portion of the
uptown section of the city. Four of the old council were re-elected.
The drys and wets are represented. The Protestants and Cath-
olics, the business, professional and laboring men. the Kepublicans,
Democrats, Socialists, the English, Swedes, and Italians are all repre-
sented, while there were more divisions than places.
It would be hard to select a more representative council in any
From the Ashtabula "Star," Nov. 5, 1915
It is generally conceded that it [the new voting system] has given
Ashtabula a broadly representative council, probably the most repre-
sentative body in the city's history.
The ward system elects each councilman by a con-
stituency of voters who live together and think apart.
The proportional system elects each councilman by a
constituency of voters who live apart and think together.
First Proportional Election in Ashtabula, November 2, 1915
FOR THE SEVEN MEMBERS OF THE CITY COUNCIL
1. Ascertain the quota. (The total number of valid ballots was
2,972) 2,972 divided by 8=371f
The next number larger than this quotient, namely 372,
is the "quota" or constituency, i. e. enough to elect, being
the smallest number which seven, but not eight, candidates
2. First-choice votes. McClure, having more first-choice votes than
the quota, was forthwith declared elected and out of the
Tke figures referred to in each of the folio Mring ptu-agraphs will appear directly opposite in the table.
3. The 20 surplus ballots of McClure were taken at random from his
ballots (an equal number being drawn from the returns of
each precinct) and transferred, each one separately accord-
ing to the second choice indicated on it.
4. Lampela, the lowest man, was now declared defeated and out of
the count, and all his ballots (except those on which no
available lower choice was indicated) were transferred in the
same way. If the second choice on a ballot was McClure,
that ballot was transferred according to third choice, of
course, since McClure had already been elected.
5. Loose, the man now lowest, was next declared defeated and out of
the count, and his ballots were transferred just as Lampela's
had been. (Note that only 64 out of Loose's 107 ballots
could be transferred because only 64 of them had marked an
available lower choice. For example, a ballot marked only
for Loose as first, McClure as second, and Lampela as third
choice could not be transferred, because McClure had been
elected and Lampela had been eliminated.)
6. Cook, the man now lowest, was declared out and his ballots
7. Carlson and Flower were now tied for lowest place, with 165 votes
each. Carlson, who had been the lower of the two at the
previous count, was declared out and his ballots transferred.
8. Flower, now lowest, was declared out and his ballots transferred.
Before this transfer was finished, Hogan had the quota and
was declared elected.
9. Tilton, now lowest, was declared out and his ballots transferred.
This brought McCune's votes up to the quota and elected
10. Rinto, being now lowest, was declared out. As this left only
seven candidates standing, it was unnecessary to count
further. (Rinto had stood higher than either Corrado or
Briggs on first choices, but he was not well known except in
his own section and so did not attract many second and
I explanation ol
ne of figures, see paragraph directly opposite.
Advantages of Proportional Representation
This system of voting is known as the Hare plan of proportional
representation. It is new to America, but has been used successfully
for a number of years in Tasmania and South Africa. It is considered
to offer the fullest and freest expression of the opinions of the elector-
ate. Its expected advantages over the common plurality system are
1. It gives proportional representation, i. e., it gives each party
or group of voters its due proportionate share of members in the coun-
cil or commission. Instead of electing a solid block of seven dry or
seven wet Republicans, Ashtabula elected four Republicans, two Dem-
ocrats, and a Socialist, of whom three were classed as dry, and four as
liberal or wet. // is just, making the body that spends the taxes of all truly
representative of all.
2. The stahiliiy and continuity of membership in the council,
through successive terms, will be much greater. The tenure of a good
Manager is thereby made more secure. A ten per cent fluctuation in
public opinion will produce only a corresponding change in the coun-
cil, whereas under the common at-large method the swing of ten per
cent may produce either a hundred per cent overturn in the personnel
of the governing body or no change at all.
3. The voter can vote exactly as he desires with no fear of wast-
ing his vote. A Prohibitionist, for instance, may mark his sentimental
first choice for a probably hopeless Prohibition candidate and yet also
turn his influence toward the selection of some one who has a better
chance of election.
4. No political organization, or caucusing of any kind to prevent
a group of voters from being split among too many acceptable candi-
dates, is necessary. The alternative second and lower choices will
automatically bring the group together again in the count. The whole
field of political bluff and strategy is swept away. A minority, no
matter how compact and well-drilled in its machine organization, can-
not capture the control, no matter how split up and disorganized the
opposition may be. The scheme makes machines weaker but makes
live parties stronger,
5. The voter can make his ballot a possible source of strength
to any candidate he approves of, no matter how many such there may
be in the field.
6. The Short Ballot principle is conserved without either concen-
trating the power into the hands of a very small commission or divid-
ing the city into districts.
7. It tends to secure for the administration the co-operation of all
interests and of all sections of public opinion. This great advan-
tage of the system was recently brought out by Dr. Lent D. Upson,
formerly Director of the Bureau of Municipal Research of Dayton,
where the Manager Plan gives the city an administration of splendid
efficiency and zeal for the public welfare but where the commission,
elected at large by the majority system, represents only the one dom-
inant group in the city.
The experience of a year and a half has now demonstrated
the need of a more satisfactory method of connecting public
opinion with the government itself. Our administration is
honest, highly efficient, and has exceeded my most enthusias-
tic expectation so far as results are concerned. I feel, how-
ever, that its work would be strengthened if every element
had a voice in the policy-making body, and were compelled to
go on record regarding the very matters which they are now
I have said this publicly a number of times, and in a num-
ber of published articles. I feel confident that the greatest
success of our present type of government will come under
some system of proportional representation.
Sample of the Ashtabula Ballot as
marked by a voter
The voter who marked
his ballot as indicated said
to the Tally Clerk in effect:
"Count this ballot for Mr.
Lampela, who is my first
choice; but if he does not
need my vote, or if it is
found that he is so weak
that votes for him are
useless, transfer this ballot
to my second choice, Mr.
McClure; if my vote cannot
help either Mr. Lampela or
Mr. McClure, count it for
Mr. Hogan, and so on."
As Mr. Lampela was
found in the counting to
be hopelessly weak, this
ballot was available for Mr.
McClure. But Mr. McClure
did not need it, already
having votes enough to
elect him. Therefore the
ballot went to Mr. Hogan,
and was one of the 372 bal-
lots that elected him.
1 MUNICIPAL TICKET
DIRECTIONS TO VOTERS -
Put the figure 1 opposite the name of =
your first choice for the Council. If you —
: want to express also second, third, and —
: other preferences, do so by putting the =
= figure 2 opposite the name of your second —
- choice, the figure 3 opposite the name of —
- your third choice, and so on. You may —
- express thus as many preferences as you —
- please. This ballot will not be counted —
- for your second choice unless it is found —
- that it cannot help your first; it will not —
- be counted for your third choice unless it —
- is found that it cannot help either your z=
J first or your second; etc. The more tJ
- choices you express, the surer you are to _
- make your ballot count for one of the ^^
- candidates you favor. —
A ballot is spoiled if the figure 1 is put _
- opposite more than one name. If you :_
- spoil this ballot, tear it across once, re- —
- turn it to the election officer in charge of —
- the ballots, and get another from him. —
For Members of Council =
FRED A. BRIGGS -
JOHN CARLSON —
M. R. COOK -
NICK CORRADO ^
ROBT. W. EARLYWINE =
JAMES H. FLOWER -
C. 0. GUDMUNDSON -
J. J. HOGAN -
ROBERT LAMPELA -
GEORGE H. LOOSE
J. H. McCLURE =
E. R. McCUNE =
ARTHUR RINTO -
E. N. TILTON tJ
Proportional Representation in Ashtabula
A Statement of the Facts Concerning: the Adoption of Proportional Represen-
tation and the First E^lectlon Held Thereunder In the City of Ashtabula,
by the Chamber of Commerce.
♦•* In 1913 Mr. W. E. Boynton, who was at the time a member of this Cham-
ber, first brought the matter [proportional representation] before the Chamber
and later Mr. C. G. Hoag, General Secretary-Treasurer of the American Pro-
portional Representation League, appeared and addressed the Chamber upon
Under the provisions of the Constitution of Ohio adopted in 1912, the prop-
osition of a new charter for this city was taken up by the Chamber, and we
were largely instrumental in bringing about the election of the Charter Com-
mission at the November election in 1913.
Proportional Representation was ably advocated before the Charter Com-
mission by Mr. Boynton, Mr. Hoag and others, but was rejected by a vote of 10
to 5. The charter prepared by the Commission was adopted at the November
election in 1914 to take effect on the first of January, 1916. In the spring of
1915 petitions were circulated to secure a vote upon an amendment to the char-
ter so that the Council first to be elected under the new charter, in November,
1915, should be elected by the proportional representation method. A special
election upon this charter amendment was held August 10th, 1915, and was
participated in by 988 voters, which number was about one-fourth of the total
vote of this city. The Amendment was adopted by a vote of 588 to 400, and
the first election for seven members of Council under the charter as so amended
was held November 2, 1915.
In this election 3334 votes were cast, of which 362 were thrown out as in-
valid. The quota required for election was 372. Of the seven members de-
clared elected one member was elected on flrs't choice ballots with a surplus of
20 votes. Another was elected on the 7th count, another on the 8th count; and
the remaining four, having respectively 361, 343, 286 and 282 votes, were declared
elected under the provisions of the amendment, that when the candidates have
been eliminated down to the number to be elected, those candidates remaining
shall be declared elected whether having the quota of votes or not. During
the process of transfer 321 votes were rendered ineffective through the failure
of the voters to mark sufficient choices. No great difficulty was experienced
In counting and transferring the ballots, the matter of transferring being com-
pleted in about three hours.
The result of the first election seems to have given the city a fairly repre-
sentative council, in which nearly all elements sufficiently important to be en-
titled to representation have selected one or more members. Ashtabula is a city
of about 22,000 people, located on the south shore of Lake Erie. It has a magnif-
icent harbor, with the greatest ore receiving and coal shipping facilities in the
world. Formerly a large amount of labor was required in dock operations so
that a considerable proportion of our population is of foreign birth. Of the
numerous nationalities represented here the only three that have sufficient
voting strength to approximate a quota are the Italians, Swedes and Finns. The
council-elect contains one member of Italian birth and one of Swedish birth.
The city is divided into four wards. The council-elect contains two members
from the first ward, one from the second, two from the third, and two from the
fourth, which is perhaps as near in proportion as may be to the proportionate
voting strength of the four wards.
The members of the council-elect consist of four Republicans, two Dem-
ocrats and one Socialist. While the Republican and Democratic strength is
more nearly equal, the election of one member fairly represents the voting
strength of the Socialist party. The most important issue before the voters
at this election was the wet and dry question, and the City of Ashtabula re-
turned a dry majority of 327. Of the members of council-elect three are dry,
three are liberal, and one very wet.
Whether the organization of this council, its appointments of the adminis-
trative officers of the City, and its conduct of municipal affairs, will result
In an efficient, economical administration of the business of the City, time will
(Signed) Legislative Committee,
F. R. HOGUE
B. P. HALL
J. M. McCLURE.
The above report was unanimously adopted by the members of the Chamber
of Commerce of the City of Ashtabula at a meeting held on the fifteenth day
of November, 1915.
(Seal of the Chamber)
Attest: THEODORE HALL, Secretary.
Text of the Election Provisions
(The only officials elected are the seven members of the council)
Marking the Ballot
Section 46-1. Ballots for the election of members of the Council shall be
marked according to the following: rules and the same shall be printed at the
top of each ballot under the head of "Directions to Voters:" [Here follow the
directions to voters as given on the sample ballot on a previous page.]
Rules for Counting the Ballots
Section 46-2. Ballots cast for the election of members of the council shall
be counted and the results determined by the election authorities according to
the following rules:
(a) No ballot shall be declared invalid except one on which the first choice
of the voter cannot be clearly ascertained. A ballot marked with a cross
opposite one name, but with no other mark, shall be treated exactly as if It
had been marked with a figure 1 opposite the same name, but with no other
(b) The ballots shall first be sorted and counted at the several voting
precincts according to the first choice of the voters. The valid ballots so cast
for each candidate shall be sorted into two groups, that of valid ballots on which
the voter's second choice is clearly indicated and that of valid ballots on which
his second choice is not clearly indicated. Each such group shall be tied up
by itself and properly marked on the outside and the two for each candidate
shall then be tied up in one bundle which shall also be properly marked on the
outside. All the bundles thus made up at a precinct, together with the invalid
ballots and a record of all the ballots cast at the precinct, showing the number
of invalid ballots, the number of valid ballots, the total number of first-choice
ballots for each candidate, and the number of ballots in each of the two groups
of first-choice ballots received by each candidate, shall be forwarded to the
Board of Deputy State Supervisors of Elections, as directed by that Board, and
the counting of the ballots shall proceed under its direction.
(c) First-choice votes for each candidate shall be added and tabulated as
the first count.
(d) The whole number of valid ballots shall then be divided by a number
greater by one than the number of seats to be filled. The next whole number
larger than the quotient thus obtained shall be the quota or constituency.
(e) All candidates the number of whotre votes on the first count is equal
to or greater than the quota shall then be declared elected.
(f) All votes obtained by any candidate in excess of the quota shall be
termed the surplus of that candidate.
(g) The surpluses shall be transferred, successively In order of size from
the largest to the smallest. Each ballot of the surplus that is capable of trans-
fer shall be transferred to and added to the votes of continuing candidates,
according to the higrhest available preference on it.
(h) "Ballots capable of transfer" means ballots from which the preference
of the voter for some continuing candidate can be clearly ascertained. "Con-
tinuing candidates" means candidates who have not been declared elected or
(I) The particular ballots to be taken for transfer as the surplus of such
candidate shall be obtained by taking as nearly an equal number of ballots
as possible from the first-choice ballots, capable of transfer, that have been
cast for the candidate in each of the different precincts of the city. All such
surplus ballots shall be taken as they may happen to come In the different
packages without selection.
(j) After the transfer of all surpluses the votes standing to the credit
of each candidate shall be counted and tabulated as the second count.
(k) After the tabulation of the second count (or after that of the first
count if no candidate received a surplus on the first) the candidate lowest on
the poll as it then stands shall be declared defeated and all his ballots capable of
transfer shall be transferred to the continuing candidates, each ballot being
transferred to the credit of that continuing candidate preferred by the voter.
After the transfer of these ballots a fresh count and tabulation shall be made.
In this manner candidates s'hall be successively declared defeated, and their
ballots capable of transfer transferred to continuing candidates, and a fresh
count and tabulation made. After any tabulation the candidate to be declared
defeated shall be the one then lowest on the poll.
(1) Whenever in the transfer of a surplus or of the ballots of a defeated
candidate the votes" of any candidate shall equal the quota, he shall immediately
be declared elected and no further transfer to him shall be made.
(m) When candidates to the number of the seats to be filled have been de-
clared elected, all other candidates shall be declared defeated and the count
shall be at an end; and when the number of continuing candidates shall be re-
duced to the number of seats to be filled, those candidates' shall be declared
elected and the count shall be at an end; and In this case the ballots of the last
candidate defeated need not be transferred,
(n) If at any count two or more candidates at the bottom of the poll have
the same number of votes, that candidate shall first be declared defeated who
was lowest at the next preceding count at which their votes were different.
Should it happen that the votes of these candidates are equal to each other on
all counts, lots shall be drawn to decide which candidate shall next be declared
(o) In the transfer of the ballots of any candidate who has received bal-
lots by transfer, those ballots shall first be transferred upon which the defeated
candidate was first choice.
(p) On each tabulation a count shall be kept of those ballots which have
not been used in the election of some candidate and which are not capable of
transfer, under the designation "Non-transferable ballots."
(q) Every ballot that is transferred from one candidate to another shall
be stamped or marked so that its entire course from candidate to candidate
throughout the count can be conveniently traced. In case a recount of the
ballots is made, every ballot shall be made to take in the recount the same
course that it took in the first count unless there is discovered a mistake that
requires its taking a different course, in which case such mistake shall be cor-
rected and any changes' made in the course taken by ballots that may be requir-
ed as a result of such correction. The particular ballots the course of which is
to be changed in the recount as a result of such corrections shall be taken as
they happen to come, without selection.
(r) So far as may be consistent with good order and with convenience In
the counting and transferring of the ballots, the public, representatives of the
press, and especially the candidates themselves shall be afforded every facility
for being present and witnessing these operations.
Situated on the south shore of Lake Erie in north
eastern Ohio, midway between New York and
Population at last federal census was 18,266. Is now
Climate healthful, tempered both summer and winter
by adjacent Lake Erie.
Excellent transportation facilities afforded by two great
trunk lines east and west, the New York Central
Lines and the Nickel Plate, by branch lines of the
New York Central and the Pennsylvania Company
to the south, and by the gigantic waterway system
of the Great Lakes to the north and north-west.
Trolley connections also with Cleveland and
Water obtained from Lake Erie in abundance and fil-
tered before distribution.
Highly efficient municipal electric light and power
Natural gas available for all purposes. Found in great
quantities within three miles of the city.
Oil found within two miles of the city.
Coal abundant and cheap from the Pennsylvania and
West Virginia fields.
Over two hundred acres of public parks.
Schools ample and thoroughly modernized.
Enormous quantities of iron ore and coal handled
annually. Dock facilities for unloading 20,000,000
tons of iron ore from lake boats each season.
Ship yards and dry-docks for the construction and
repair of the largest lake freighters.
Labor troubles unknown.
Many desirable factory sites available.
Write Theodore Hall, Secretary Chamber of Commerce,
Ashtabula, 0., for further information.
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